C20 Twentieth Century Fires

The Essentials of Fireplaces

 

Apex
The highest point of an arch

Art Deco
An art movement from the 1920s and 1930s known for its geometric forms and modernism.

 

Art Nouveau
An art movement that ended during the early 1900’s known for its sinuous shapes.

 

Arts and Crafts
A development of the Aesthetic Movement that influenced other movemants including Art Nouveau that commonly used natural forms such as birds, blossom and fruit.

Bars
A style of fret.

Barley Twist

Blind Fret Detail
Applied mouldings in the "Adams Style"



Bolection
A moulding around a panel, projecting beyond the surface of the framing.

Bolection moulding on a fireplace example of bolection mouding on a mantel



Boxwood Stringing
Very thin lines denoting the edges of veneered panels
boxwood stringing


Break front
Where the frieze of the Fireplace Mantel projects forward in the middle

a break front mantel

Bronze
An alloy of copper, tin, zinc.

Caddy Style
The Fireplace Mantelpiece does not overlap. It has flush edges

a caddy style mantel

Canopy on legs
A cast iron frame introduced around 1880 and which became very popular in Edwardian times. It dispensed with a cast iron frame for the tiles which were cast into their own tile panels and placed on either side of the canopy at an angle depending on the size of the surrounding Fireplace Mantel.



Castellated
Having "turrets" or "battlement" details like a castle

Chamfered
Bevelled or sloped .

Construction Hearth
A solid area of floor on which a Fireplace stands.

Contemporary Stove
A stove manufactured in the twenty first century.

Contemporary Style
A style from the late 1950s -60s, commonly asymmetric. A radical change from beige post war All Tiled Fireplaces.

Corbel
A projection that supports weight.

Cross Banding
Vertical veneer panels usually 1' section

cross banding on a mantel

Daylight Opening
The opening in a Fireplace Mantel. Also called the sight opening.

Dentil moulding
Castellated moulding in a small section

dentil moulding on a mantel

Drop Shoulder
A step down in height at the ends of a Fireplace Mantel. A typical Art Deco feature.

Ebonised Mahogany

drop shoulder on a mantel

Edwardian
Refers to the reign of any King named Edward. On this site it refers to the reign of Edward VII (1901-1910).

Entablature
The part of a Fireplace Mantel on top of the columns or legs with roundels, corbels and other decoration,

Faience
Glazed coloured earthenware.

Faience fireplace

Fibreback
A ceramic coated heatproof fibre used behind a gas fire.

fibreback

Fillets
A way to reduce the daylight opening. They are made in metal, wood, slate etc.

Finish
The final polish on a Fireplace Mantel. It can be a wax finish, spray finish, a french polish etc.

Fireback
The back wall or ceramic back of a Fireplace using solid fuel.

ceramic fireback

Firebasket
A portable firegrate.

Fire Basket

 

Flame Mahogany

flame mahogany veneer

flame mahogany veneer

Flue
A chimney, the pipe for conveying hot air and smoke away.

Fluted
Ornamented with grooves.

Fret
The decorative front covering a grate, usually free standing.

Frieze
The decorated band across a Fireplace Mantel or Fireplace.
Usually the same width as the legs

Grate
A framework of cast iron bars for holding a fire. Victorian grates have no legs. Stool grates are free standing

Half round beading
Fine detail at the edges of ornate Fireplace Mantels

Hearth
The part of the floor on which a fire is made or a tiled or stone structure on which a Fireplace stands.

Inset or Insert
The tiled, stone or metal Fireplace containing the fire opening that is surrounded by a Fireplace Mantel.

|Jambs
The sidepieces or legs of a Fireplace

Keystone
The stone at the apex of an arch.

Leg returns
The outside return of a Fireplace Mantel is the depth of a Fireplace Mantel to the wall. The inside return is the depth going to the Fireplace insert. The difference between the two is the rebate.

Lintel
The strong support across a Fireplace opening.

Living Flame Gas Fire
A gas fires with a burning coal effect made to suit an original or reproduction Fireplace.

Mackintosh
Scottish designer of furniture and also Fireplace Mantels

Fireplace Mantel
Also called a Fireplace Mantelpiece. The ornamental structure over and in front of a Fireplace.

Fireplace Mantelshelf
The ornamental shelf over a Fireplace.

Fireplace Manteltree
The lintel or arch of a Fireplace. Not a very common term these days.

Mantle
The part of the earth beneath the crust that surrounds the earth's core and is the main part of the earth's mass. The mantle has nothing to do with Fireplaces but it does get very hot!

Marquetry
Work inlaid with pieces of various coloured woods.

Marquetry on a wooden mantel

Motifs
Applied Decoration.

Odeon Style
Resembling streamlined Odeon cinema style architecture with high towers and sweeping lines. Odeions were the amphitheatres of ancient Greece and the name Odeon was first used by cinemas in France and Italy in the 1920s. Oscar Deutsch appropriated the name and claimed that it stood for "Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation". The first of his Odeons, built in a Moorish style, opened in Birmingham in 1930 and the first of the streamlined Odeons was South Harrow in 1935. He used the archictects AP Starkey, Harry Weedon, Andrew Mather among others. Many cast iron Fireplaces were made in this Odeon style as well as wooden Fireplace Mantels.

Opening
The area where the Fireplace insert fits in a Fireplace Mantel. Also called the daylight opening or sight opening.

Original
When refered to on this website an original is usually a Fireplace, mantle or other item manufactured during the twentieth century. It can have other meanings. For example in sculpture an "original"is the actual piece that the artist delivers to the foundry from which "original production" pieces are made.

Original Art Deco Fireplace
A Fireplace made in the Art Deco style. They are mainly from the 1920s and 1930s but can be from a number of periods in the twentieth century from the 1920s to the 1950s and 1960s



Original Art Deco Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made in the Art Deco style. They are predominantly from the 1920s and 1930s but can be from a number of periods in the twentieth century from the 1920s to the 1950s and 1960s.



Original Art Nouveau Fireplace
A Fireplace made in the Art Nouveau style which ended in the 1910s.

Original Art Nouveau Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made in the Art Nouveau style which ended in the 1910s.

Original Arts and Crafts Fireplace
A Fireplace made in the Arts and Crafts style which ended at the start of the Twentieth Century.

 

Original Arts and Crafts Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made in the Arts and Crafts style which ended at the start of the Twentieth Century.

Original Edwardian Fireplace
A Fireplace made during the reign of Edward VII



Original Edwardian Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made during the reign of Edward VII



Original Mirror
A mirror from any period of the twentieth century

Original Stove
A stove made during any period of the twentieth century

Original Post War Fireplace
A Fireplace made after the Second World War

Original Post War Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made after the Second World War

Original Pre War Fireplace
A Fireplace made before the 1940s.

Original Pre War Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made before the 1940s.

Original Turn of the Century Fireplace
A Fireplace made around the beginning of the twentieth century

Original Turn of the Century Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel made around the beginning of the twentieth century

Patina
Specifically the patina refers to a film of copper carbonate that forms on a bronze or copper surface but it can also refer to oxides on the surface of other metals or surface effects on woods etc. that occur with ageing. It is a highly desirable effect.

Quartered
Four book matched segments of veneer- a mark of quality

Rebate
The difference between the outside and inside leg return of a Fireplace Mantel - the gap that will hold the Fireplace insert.

Reproduction Fireplace
A Fireplace manufactured by us in a number of styles from the twentieth century.

Reproduction Fireplace Mantel
A Fireplace Mantel manufactured by us in a number of styles from the twentieth century

Rope Twist
A classical decoration used as edging detail on a Fireplace Mantel.

Shoulder
End section of a Fireplace Mantelpiece where it drops down to the outside return.

Sight Opening
The opening in a Fireplace Mantel. Also called the daylight opening

Stonite
Moulded and polished concrete used in blocks for early twentieth centures fires

Example of a stonite fireplace

Stool Grate
A free standing metal support for logs or coal to be burnt

Stool grate example

Striated
Having prominent grain in marble, stone, slate or wood.

example of striated wood

Tile panels
Sets of tiles cast into concrete to be placed on either side of a canopy on legs

example of tile panels

 

Throat former
The weight bearing lower part of a flue.

Tudor Arch
A shallow pointed arch usually in stone but also appears on wooden Fireplace Mantels.

tudor arch example

Turned Columns
Segregated bands in a column as opposed to a smooth finish

Van Delft Glaze
1950s faience drip glaze exclusively used by H and E Smith
(formerly Smith and Warilow) of Stoke on Trent.
The rough surfaced tile biscuits were hand dipped in the
glaze and then fired at extreme angles in the kiln to
achieve the run effect of glaze

Van Delft Glaze example Van Delft Glaze example

Veneer
Wafer thin wood glued to a "carcass" to save on materials.

veneer example